Samplion suomeksi   in English


Increased antibiotic resistance of bacteria occurring in hospital environment has constituted a threat to the current medical system (HAKALEHTO 2006). Bacterial strains which are no more sensitive to even novel types of antibiotics will be encountered more and more frequently (FLYGAR & JANSSON 2009). Enhanced diagnostics and well-focused antibiotic treatments are needed to avoid the generation and spreading of antibiotic resistance and so called hospital strains. Alternative treatments of infectious diseases, as well as supporting measures for the normal human microbial flora, need to be developed. PMEU is an excellent tool for R&D in the clinical hygiene. Speeding up of both diagnostical procedures and acquisition of the analysis results will improve the prognosis of the patients. PMEU is currently being validated for hospital diagnostics.

A research project on bacterial strains, isolated from the blood samples of newborn children in the Intensive Care Unit of the Kuopio University Hospital was carried on in Summer 2008 by using a combination of PMEU Enrichment Unit and ChemPro100i ® Gas Detector (= a prototype of PMEU SCENTRION ®).

Original bacterial density of 1* 106 cfu/ml led to the growth detection after a PMEU incubation of 2 – 4 hours. Detection of growth could be carried out after 4 – 5 hours' incubation period from samples with very low, even 0.5 to 600 cfu/ml, bacterial densities. Thanks to these results, a new generation of analytical system for the clinical microbiology and hospital hygiene is developed by us.

Analytical method for the detection of Clostridium difficile bacterium has been developed in cooperation with Dr. Markus Hell, responsible for Hospital Hygiene and Control of Infectious Diseases in Salzburger Landesklinikum (Salzburg University Hospital). The role of C.difficile as the agent of antibiotic diarrhea has increased and, in addition, very virulent new stains of this bacterium have been found. Better detection methods for the bacterium are therefore needed. Scientific publications regarding studies on clinically important bacteria by the PMEU are to be published soon.

Human intestinal flora is developed already during the first years of our lives, and is controlled by the most sensitive mechanisms, interconnecting the human body and the microbes inside the body system (HAKALEHTO et al. 2008). Observation and simulation of these interactions with PMEU methods has been opening totally new windows into the world of the microbes.


M. FLYGAR, M. JANSSON (2009). Bakteerien vastaisku. Suomen Lääkärilehti 64 (2009) 575-577.

E. HAKALEHTO (2006). Semmelweis’ Present Day Follow-up: Updating Bacterial Sampling and Enrichment in Clinical Hygiene. Review: Pathophysiology 13 (2006) 257-267.

E. HAKALEHTO, T. HUMPPI & H. PAAKKANEN (2008). Dualistic Acidic and Neutral Glucose Fermentation Balance in Small Intestine: Simulation in vitro. Pathophysiology 15 (2008), 211-220.

E. HAKALEHTO, J. PESOLA, A. HEITTO, B. BHANJ DEO, K. RISSANEN, U. SANKILAMPI, T. HUMPPI & H. PAAKKANEN (2009a). Fast Detection of Bacterial Growth by Using Portable Microbe Enrichment Unit (PMEU) and ChemPro100i® Gas Sensor. Pathophysiology 16 (2009) 57-62.

E. HAKALEHTO, T. VILPPONEN-SALMELA, K. KINNUNEN & A. VON WRIGHT (2009b). Lactic Acid Bacteria Enriched from Human Gastric Biopsies. Manuscript in preparation.

ELIAS HAKALEHTO, MARKUS HELL. CHRISTA BERNHOFER, ANNELI HEITTO, JOUNI PESOLA, TARMO HUMPPI & HEIKKI PAAKKANEN (2009c). Growth and Gaseous Emissions of Pure and Mixed Small Intestinal Bacterial Cultures: Effects of bile and vancomycin. Pathophysiology, doi:10.1016/j.pathophys.2009.07.003

J. PESOLA & E. HAKALEHTO (2009). Stabilization of Intestinal Enterobacterial Microflora after Wide-spectrum Antibiotic Treatment of Neonatal Sepsis and Multiple Antimicrobials in Infancy: a Case Study. Manuscript in preparation.

J. PESOLA, O. VAARALA, A. HEITTO & E. HAKALEHTO (2009b). Enrichment in Portable Enrichment Unit in Rapid Characterization of Infant Intestinal Enterobacterial Microbiota. Manuscript submitted for publication in Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease.


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